Urusobe rw’ibihe by’ingenzi byaranze imyaka 4 yagejeje u Rwanda ku Bwigenge

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SANGIZA ABANDI IYI NKURU

Umwaka wa 1959 uhatse imyaka myinshi mu buzima bw’u Rwanda kuko ari wo wabaye nk’itangiriro ry’amateka mabi ku Banyarwanda n’intango y’ibibazo byazengereje u Rwanda mu myaka yakurikiyeho kugeza kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994, ndetse n’ingaruka zayikurikiye.

Umwuka ntiwari mwiza mu gihugu mu ntangiriro z’umwaka wa 1959 kubera imvururu zari ziri mu mashyirahamwe yaje guhinduka amashyaka nyuma gato, nubwo Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa ntako atari yagize, akora ibishoboka byose ngo ubumwe bwongere kugaruka.

Ibintu byasubiye irudubi kuwa 25 Nyakanga 1959 ubwo Umwami Rudahigwa yatangiraga amarabira i Bujumbura, igihugu kigasa nk’ikibuze umurongo.

Amashyaka nka Parmehutu na Aprosoma ashyigikiwe n’Abakoloni b’Ababiligi yifuzaga ko ubwami buvaho, ubutegetsi bukajya mu maboko y’Abahutu kandi hakajyaho Repubulika, naho amashyaka nka UNAR na RADER ashaka ko ubwami bugumaho kandi u Rwanda rugahabwa ubwigenge byihuse.

Umwami Rudahigwa amaze gutanga, icyuho hagati y’abashaka repubulika n’abashaka ubwami cyarushijeho kwigaragaza, ndetse iyimikwa ry’Umwami Kigeli V Ndahindurwa risa nk’irikorwa huti huti mu kuburizamo imigambi y’abashakaga ko hahita hajyaho Repubulika.

Umuzi w’inzira y’amateka ashariye y’u Rwanda

Isubyo rikomeye mu mateka y’u Rwanda ryatangiye ku Cyumweru tariki ya 1 Ugushyingo 1959, ubwo Mbonyumutwa Dominique wari umuyoboke wa Parmehutu yakubitwaga n’insoresore z’Abatutsi. Mbonyumutwa yari Sous Chef muri Ndiza i Gitarama.

Bararwanye Mbonyumutwa aza kubacika ariruka, ariko nyuma abarwanashyaka ba Parmehutu bakwirakwiza igihuha cy’uko yishwe n’abambari ba UNAR, ari nako bashishikariza Abahutu kwihorera.

Abahutu bari muri Parmehutu batangiye kwihorera hirya no hino mu gihugu, batwika inzu n’imyaka y’Abatutsi irarandurwa. Bamwe mu batutsi kandi barimo abari abayobozi batangiye kwicwa, abagize amahirwe barahunga.

Ibyo bikorwa byagize ingaruka zikomeye ku Rwanda kuko abaturage benshi bahunze kugeza ubwo mu 1962 impunzi z’Abanyarwanda mu mahanga zasagaga ibihumbi 200.

Ibihumbi by’Abatutsi byafashe iy’ubuhungiro nyuma yo kwibasirwa n’abarwanashyaka ba Parmehutu na Aprosoma

Imvururu zimaze gukaza umurego, tariki 9 Ugushyingo 1959, ingabo z’u Bubiligi zabaga muri Congo zoherejwe mu Rwanda guhosha imvururu ziyobowe na Colonel Guy Logiest waje kuyobora ingabo z’Ababiligi mu Rwanda (Résident Militaire du Rwanda).

Nubwo izo ngabo zoherejwe zifite inshingano yo guhosha imvururu no kurinda abaturage, Paternostre de la Mairieu wabaye umujyanama wa Kayibanda mu gitabo cye ‘Toute ma vie pour vous, mes frères’, agaragaza ko ingabo z’Ababiligi zibanze mu gucungira umutekano abanyapolitiki b’amashyaka nka Parmehutu na Aprosoma yashakaga kuvanaho ubwami kurusha gucungira abaturage umutekano.

Tariki 10 Ugushyingo 1959, u Bubiligi bwemeje itegeko rigenda amavugurura mu miyoborere y’u Rwanda, nk’aho izari sous-chefferies zagombaga guhindurwa komine hakanakorwa amatora ya za Komine, no gushyiraho inzego zagombaga kuganisha u Rwanda ku bwami bugendera kuri Repubulika.

Umubiligi Guy Logiest yiyemeje gushyigikira Abahutu

Tariki 15 Ugushyingo 1959 Guy Logiest wari umaze kugirwa Résident Spécial w’u Rwanda yatangiye kuganira n’abanyapolitiki batandukanye ku bibazo byari mu Rwanda.

Yagiye kuganira na Kayibanda, Logiest ataha avuga ko yumvise neza impamvu agomba gushyigikira Abahutu.

Mu kwereka Kayibanda ko amushyigikiye muri gahunda yari arimo, Logiest yafashe imyanya y’aba Sushefu na ba Shefu b’Abatutsi bari barahunze cyangwa barishwe mu mvururu, ategeka ko ihabwa Abahutu bo muri Parmehutu.

Nyuma Kayibanda yavuze ko icyo gikorwa “cyateye ubwoba Abatutsi bashakaga kwikubira ubutegetsi’ nk’uko biri mu gitabo cya Paternostre.

Tariki 25 Ukuboza 1959, ibyari za sous chefferies 544 mu gihugu byahindutsemo Komine 229 naho za teritwari zihinduka perefegitura icumi nkuko byari biri mu Iteka ryatanzwe n’u Bubiligi, hagamijwe gutegura inzego zizageza u Rwanda ku bwigenge.

Iryo teka kandi ryasabye amashyaka ya politiki kwitegura amatora ya za komine ndetse inategeka ko tariki 6 Gashyantare 1960 hashyirwaho inama nkuru y’igihugu y’agateganyo yakoraga nk’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko, igizwe na babiri bahagarariye buri shyaka muri ane yari akomeye mu gihugu.

Bahatiye Umwami Kigeli Ndahindurwa kuva Nyanza akimukira Kigali, biba ay’ubusa! 

Inama nkuru yari igizwe ahanini n’abakomoka mu mashyaka yarwanyaga ubwami, muri iyo minsi yarateranye iza kwandikira Umwami Kigeli imuha imyanzuro bitaga ko igamije kuzana amahoro mu gihugu ariko Kigeli arayanga kuko yayifataga nk’igamije kumuhatira kwemera ibyo Ababiligi bashaka.

Mubyo bamusabye akabyanga harimo kuva i Nyanza akimukira i Kigali, kuvanaho Kalinga n’indi migenzo yakorwaga ibwami.

Kigeli amaze kubyanga, tariki 30 Mata 1960, amashyaka atatu arimo Parmehutu, Aprosoma na RADER yandikiye Guverinoma y’u Bubiligi ayimenyesha ko umwami yanze gukorana n’amashyaka ndetse n’Inama Nkuru y’Igihugu, bityo ko “batangije ihangana na Kigeli.”

Tariki 6 Kamena 1960, abayobozi ba Parmehutu bateraniye mu Ruhengeri bayobowe na Kayibanda, batangaza ko batemera Ubwami, ko bashyigikiye Repubulika, ari nabwo batangazaga ko ishyaka ryabo rihindutse MDR Parmehutu.

Hagati ya tariki 27 Kamena na 22 Nyakanga hakozwe amatora y’abajyanama ba komine mu gihugu hose nk’uko byari mu Iteka rya Guverinoma y’u Bubiligi, Mu myanya isaga 3000, MDR yatsindiyemo 74 %, naho 7.8 % itsindirwa na Aprosoma, 6.6 % ijya kuri RADER, mu gihe UNAR yabonye 1.7 %.

Uko Umwami Kigeli yahejejwe ishyanga ku ngufu bigizwemo uruhare n’Ababiligi

Kubera ibibazo bya Politiki byari mu gihugu, muri Nyakanga 1960, Umwami Kigeli yumvise ko Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Loni, Dag Hammarskjöld azaba ari i Léopoldville (Kinshasa) muri Congo, asaba Guverineri wa Ruanda-Urundi pasiporo ngo azagende bahure, amugezeho ikibazo cy’abanyarwanda kuko yabonaga ko Ababiligi batazagikemura.

Yabanje kwangirwa pasiporo ariko ageze aho arayihabwa, agiye yangirwa kugaruka ndetse Abakoloni bakwirakwiza kuri Radiyo ko Umwami atemerewe kugaruka mu Rwanda. Yagerageje no kuza mu ibanga babimenye bamusubizayo ku ngufu.

Tariki 18 Ukwakira 1960 hatowe ba Burugumesitiri ba Komine. Muri ba burugumesitiri 229, hari harimo 210 ba MDR Parmehutu. Mu matora y’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko yabaye tariki 26 Ukwakira MDR Parmehutu yagize imyanya 31, irindwi ya Aprosoma n’icyenda ya RADER .

Kubera ko MDR Parmehutu ariyo yari ifite ubwiganze mu Nteko niyo yasabwe gushyiraho Guverinoma y’inzibacyuho. Ni Guverinoma yari igizwe n’abaminisititi 9, abanyamahanga ba Leta 12 barimo Ababiligi umunani.

Ibyo ubwabyo bigaragaza urwego rw’ubwigenge u Bubiligi bwateguriraga u Rwanda kuko icyo gihugu cyakomeje kugira ijambo rigaragara mu butegetsi bw’u Rwanda na nyuma y’ubwigenge.

Bivuye ku busabe bw’Umwami na UNAR, tariki 20 Ukuboza 1960, Inteko rusange ya Loni yategetse u Bubiligi kurekura imfungwa zose za Politiki zari mu Rwanda, gutegura inama y’ubwiyunge no kwimura amatora rusange yagombaga kuba muri Mutarama 1961.

Loni kandi yategetse ko Kigeli agaruka mu gihugu hagakorwa kamarampaka Abanyarwanda bakerekana niba bemera Repubulika cyangwa Umwami.

Ikurwaho ry’ingoma ya cyami, Mbonyumutwa agirwa Perezida w’Inzibacyuho

Kayibanda na MDR banze imyanzuro ya Loni, yiyemeza kujya kureba Colonel Logiest ngo baganire ku cyakorwa. Mubyo yemeranyije na Logiest icyo gihe harimo gutegura inama y’abajyanama ba Komine yaje guterana kuwa 28 Mutarama 1961 i Gitarama ari nayo ku mugaragaro yatangaje ko ubwami bukuweho mu Rwanda, hashyirwaho n’ibirango bishya by’igihugu n’ubuyobozi bushya.

Logiest niwe watanze ubufasha n’ibikoresho byifashishijwe muri iyo nama y’i Gitarama.

Uwo munsi hatowe Dominique Mbonyumutwa nka Perezida w’inzibacyuho. Hatorwa abagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko nshya MDR ibona imyanya 40 naho Aprosoma igira 4, Minisitiri w’Intebe aba Grégoire Kayibanda.

Tariki 6 Gashyantare 1961 u Bubiligi bwemeje inzego zari zatorewe i Gitarama nubwo zari zinyuranyije n’umwanzuro wa Loni, icyo gihugu kivuga ko kubihakana byashoboraga guteza umwuka mubi mu gihugu.

Tariki 21 Mata 1961, Loni yatoye undi mwanzuro uvuga ko amatora y’abagize inteko Ishinga Amategeko na kamarampaka azaba muri Nzeri 1961. Bivuze ko Loni yari igitsimbaraye ku mwanzuro wayo wo kutemera inzego zashyiriweho i Gitarama.

Tariki 25 Nzeri 1961 niwo munsi wemejwe nk’itariki y’amatora y’abagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko na Kamarampaka, aho Abanyarwanda bagombaga kwemeza niba bashyigikiwe umwami n’ubwami cyangwa Repubulika.

Mu Nteko, MDR Parmehutu yatsindiye imyanya 35 kuri 44, UNAR itsindira imyanya irindwi, Aprosoma na RADER buri shyaka ritsindira umwanya umwe umwe.

Ku bijyanye na Kamarampaka, ibyavuye mu matora bivuga ko 79% by’abatoye bemeje ko badashyigikiye ubwami n’Umwami Kigeli. Nubwo ariko MDR yatsinze, inyandiko z’icyo gihe zigaragaza ko ayo matora yabayemo uburiganya kandi ko abarwanashyaka ba UNAR n’abandi bari bashyikiye ubwami batewe ubwoba, bikiyongeraho ko umwami ubwe yari yarabujijwe kugaruka mu gihugu no kuba benshi mu barwanashyaka be bari barameneshejwe bari hanze y’igihugu, abandi barishwe.

Ubutegetsi mu biganza bya Kayibanda, Abatutsi hanze y’igihugu

Amatora arangiye, benshi mu Batutsi bongeye kwibasirwa ndetse n’abari bafite icyizere ko inzego nshya z’ubuyobozi zagarura ituze mu gihugu, bari batangiye kubona neza umurongo mushya w’ubutegetsi bwa Kayibanda.

Hari abandi batutsi benshi bafashe iy’ubuhungiro batinya ingaruka bashobora guhura nazo ku bw’umutekano wabo.

Tariki 25 Ukwakira 1961, Inteko Ishinga amategeko yarateranya itora Amandin Rugira kuba Perezida w’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko mu gihe Kayibanda Inteko yamutoreye kuba Perezida.

Ubutegetsi bushya bwatangiye kwizera noneho guhabwa igihugu byuzuye dore ko ibyo Loni yasabaga byose byari byakozwe, bwemewe ku rwego mpuzamahanga.

Muri Gicurasi 1962, Ingabo zarindaga Teritwari ziyoborwa n’u Bubiligi zarahinduwe zigirwa Ingabo z’u Rwanda. Ingabo zashyizwe mu maboko ya Perezida Kayibanda ariko yemeranya n’u Bubiligi gukomeza gukorana n’ingabo zabwo mu gihe iz’u Rwanda zitaraboneka ku bwinshi.

Nubwo ubutegetsi bwari mu maboko ya Kayibanda na MDR, imvururu zishingiye ku mashyaka zakomeje kubaho kubera amashyaka nka UNAR na RADER atemeraga uburyo ubutegetsi bwari busaranganyijwe. Kubera igitutu cya Loni ayo mashyaka yahawe imyanya mike muri Guverinoma ariko nyuma y’umwaka umwe iyo myanya yarayambuwe, MDR aba ariyo iyiharira.

Umunsi Loni yemeje ko u Rwanda ruhawe ubwigenge

Tariki 27 Kamena 1962, Loni yafashe umwanzuro wemeza ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda ukwarwo n’u Burundi ukwabwo. Tariki 1 Nyakanga 1962 niyo Loni yahise igenwa nk’itariki y’Ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda n’u Burundi.

Tariki ya 1 Nyakanga 1962, i Kigali imbere ya Sainte Famille niho habereye ibirori byo kwizihiza umunsi w’Ubwigenge. Uwo munsi Kayibanda yashimiye cyane u Bubiligi uburyo bwafashije ishyaka rye, by’umwihariko Colonel Logiest.

Nubwo u Bubiligi ari bwo bugaragara nk’ubwari bushyigikiye Kayibanda, Kiliziya Gatolika iyobowe na Musenyeri Perraudin nayo yagaragaje kuba ku ruhande cyane rwa MDR Parmehutu.

Bihereye ku kuba Kayibanda yarafatwaga nk’umuhungu wayo dore ko yarerewe mu iseminari, Kiliziya Gatolika yanagize uruhare rukomeye mu gushishikariza abaturage kujya inyuma ya Kayibanda n’ishyaka rye.

Mu gitabo “Par-dessus tout la charité”: un évêque au Rwanda : les six premières années” cya André Perraudin, hari aho yagaragaje ko yasabye abapadiri ati “Ni ngombwa ko muri misiyoni zose muhamagarira abantu kuzuza inshingano zabo (zo gutora) , bagahitamo abantu b’inyangamugayo kandi b’ingenzi byanashoboka b’abagatolika. Bagomba kuzirinda gutatanya amajwi yabo kandi bakibanda kuri abo bakwiriye gutorwa koko.”

Ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda bwahaye umwanya Kayibanda n’ishyaka rye bwo kurushaho gutoteza Abatutsi kuko barushijeho kwicwa no guhunga kugeza ubwo mu 1963 Abanyapolitiki bakomeye muri UNAR na RADER bicwaga.

Ni nayo mpamvu benshi mu banyamateka batemera ubwo bwigenge u Rwanda rwabonye kuko butabaye umwanya n’amahirwe abaturage bose, ahubwo wabaye umwanya w’igice kimwe cy’abaturage kwikiza ikindi, ariko nako igihugu cyasaga n’ikiri mu kwaha kw’Ababiligi bari barahoze barukoloniza.


SANGIZA ABANDI IYI NKURU

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