Who Is Alexander The Great? How Did He Die?

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SANGIZA ABANDI IYI NKURU

Alexander the Great; B.C. Having lived in 3000s, Alexander The Great conquered almost half of the world in 13 years and became a great commander. Another name is “Megas Alexandros”. Alexander the Great’s father II.Philip gives his son a horse named Boukephalos. According to legend, “the horse, even afraid of its own shadow, creates a lot of unrest; therefore Alexander takes the horse to the South and the Southern conquests begin. With the death of the horse, he returns from the South expedition. The horse is so important that its sculpture is built in many places and even printed on money.

His father is the Macedonian ,queen II.Philip  mother is Olympian, who comes from a noble family of Greek origin. II. Philip took Greek cities and established the Greek union. Meanwhile, Alexander the Great was raised for the throne as a prince. II. With Philip’s murder as a result of an assassination, Alexander comes to the throne when he is not even 20 years old. When he was on the throne, his enemies increased and revolt started in many places. 

He went on the throne and killed his half-brother, who was still a baby, and followed a different policy by executing many statesmen. Alexander was interested in medicine and science with the influence of his lessons from Aristotle.

After becoming king, he was elected as Hegemon and Commander-in-Chief in the Hellenic union assembly in Corinth. On his return to Macedonia, he occupied Thrace. Alexander the Great went to the other side of the Danube and, after distributing the Getas, defeated the Illyrians who tried to disperse and invade Macedonia. Alexander the Great, who had received war training since his very young age, claimed that he was “created only to conquer”. It has always acted with the policy of conquest and expanded its territory.

While Alexander fought in the North, the city of Thebes rebelled against Macedonia in cooperation with the Athenians, and the rumors were that Alexander died. Alexander then occupied the city of Thebes and demolished all the buildings, selling around 30,000 people to the slave markets in the city. He declared his sovereignty to Athens and showed his strength.

Wars of Alexander the Great

After the north, Alexander went to the East. With the loss of power of the Persian empire, he considered preparing a campaign for the Persians. Although the Persians were superior in number, there was no commander-in-chief in their armies. Darius did not consider them and did not choose a commander-in-chief in the army. B.C. Persians and Macedonian armies faced for the first time in Granikos in 334. The Persians made a strategic mistake, and this mistake exploded them. Alexander the Great noticed this mistake and started attacking under the command of Pholemaos.

Alexander the Great’s army continued to attack by crossing the river. The Persians tried to reach Alexander during the war. Darius’s son-in-law injured Alexander from his shoulder, but this injury caused the death of Darius’s groom and died there. After a while, the Persian army withdrew. Alexander the Great continued to surround. Most of the soldiers who surrendered from the Persians were Greek mercenaries. Many of the Persians were killed, and most were captured.

Asian gates were opened to Alexander the Great, who defeated the Persian army. The Persians have been severely defeated. Alexander took control of many cities. Later, Darius set out for Cilicia with the instinct to take revenge on Alexander. Darius again made a strategic mistake and tried to pass his army through the narrow valleys. Alexander the Great again faced Darius in Ayaş Plain in 333 BC. Afraid of Alexander, Darius began to flee back.

Seeing Darius escaped, his army withdrew. While Darius was running away, Alexander caught his family and captured them. His defeat from this war was also very discouraged by Darius. As a result of this defeat, Darius wanted to sign peace by sending an ambassador to Alexander the Great. When he could not convince Alexander of peace, he had to establish a new army. They faced in the plain of Gaugamela. When Darius realized that he was defeated during the war, he escaped, and the army that realized that he had escaped was torn apart. Macedonians reached the Persian land here. Everywhere was looted in a short time. Alexander the Great ended the Persian campaign with a great victory.

How Did Alexander the Great Die?

Considered one of the most famous and great commanders in the world history, Alexander the Great lived between 356 BC and 323 BC. At the time of his birth, the Temple of Artemis is said to have collapsed and was a meteor shower. After his father was killed by the protection of King Philip, Alexander, the 20-year-old king of Macedonia, was given the nickname “Great” because he dominated the vast territory. Desiring to conquer the world, Alexander, although he lived only 33 years, conquered many places in a short time and left important marks in the history of the world.

Having learned lessons from Aristotle, İskender was very interested in learning other cultures as well as giving importance to literature and sports.

Conquests of Alexander the Great

While he was the King of Macedonia, all Greek states except Sparta had to accept his sovereignty, as a result of the harsh suppression of the uprisings that came one after another in the lands he ruled. After this incident, he went to Iran expedition with the desire to seize new lands.

Granikos, a stream in the Biga district of Çanakkale today, succeeded in defeating the number-superior army of the Persian King in the battle between the two armies facing each other, thus facilitating the transition to Asia. Again, immediately after this war, it had captured the whole of Western Anatolia. After taking Phoenician, he took Palestine and immediately afterwards, he made his way to Egypt. The people of Egypt, who lived under the Persian domination, had declared him Pharaoh because he regarded Alexander as a savior and it was easy to get here. The city of Alexandria, founded on the banks of the Nile, takes its name from Alexander the Great.   

He conquered rich lands with important conquests, one after another; He got richer with the acquisition of India, and in a short time he managed to become one of the richest rulers in the world. He founded two cities in India named Aleksandreia Nikaia and the name of his deceased horse, Boukephalia.

According to the rumor, Boukephalia, who was gifted to his father, King Philip, was quite a grumpy horse and Alexander whispered something in his ear and calmed him down. After that, the horse did not ride any other horses until he died in the Battle of Hydaspes. One of the rumors about Alexander is the following dialogue with the famous philosopher Diogenes: Iskender, who visited Diogen when he came to the city of Corinth, said to the philosopher, “Say whatever you wish from me.” When he said, he was famous, “I would not want any other bestow. received the answer.  

Requesting to unite the continents of Asia and Europe, Alexander the Great did not get defeated in the conquest wars that lasted for 15 years. Thanks to the large lands it captured, the Egyptian Pharaoh, the Persian King, the King of Macedonia and the King of Asia also held the titles. Qualified as a hero, sometimes a ruthless commander by the people in the places he conquered, Alexander the Great has also been involved in folk tales in epics and has deeply influenced the culture of many nations. Known as the king who opened the Silk Road by the Byzantines, Alexander was known as Macedonian Alexander or Alexander Rumî in Turkish history.

Theories of the Death of Alexander the Great

Throughout history, various theories have been put forward by the researchers and scientists regarding the way of death of Alexander the Great. It has been argued that the West Nile Virus, which is transmitted by flies, may have caused his death, as there are those who say he died of malaria.

Some scientists have pointed out the possibility that Alexander the Great might have been poisoned by a plant called Akçöpleme, which was used by the Greeks for its vomiting, but that causes poisoning if used too much, and suggested that this possibility is stronger because it has many enemies. According to another assumption; Planned to travel to take Arabia after taking India, Alexander the Great fell ill after a drunken fun and died before he could realize his plan.

He was taken to Egypt in a golden coffin and buried with a great ceremony. Since the Emperor’s body was not found, it was not possible to prove all these theories and to reveal for what reason he died.  


SANGIZA ABANDI IYI NKURU

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